Actinic keratosis – Often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
Addison’s disease – 1° adrenocortical deficiency
Albright’s syndrome – Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, short stature, young girls
Albuminocytologic dissociation Guillain-Barré (↑ protein in CSF with only modest ↑in cell count)
Alport’s syndrome Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Anti-basement membrane antibodies – Goodpasture’s syndrome
Anticentromere antibodies – Scleroderma (CREST)
Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (ANA antibodies) SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Anti-epithelial cell antibodies – Pemphigus vulgaris
Antigliadin antibodies – Celiac disease
Antihistone antibodies – Drug-induced SLE
Anti-IgG antibodies – Rheumatoid arthritis
Antimitochondrial antibodies – 1° biliary cirrhosis
Antineutrophil antibodies – Vasculitis
Antiplatelet antibodies – Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Arachnodactyly – Marfan’s syndrome
Argyll Robertson pupil – Neurosyphilis
Arnold-Chiari malformation – Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Aschoff bodies – Rheumatic fever
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies – Wernicke’s encephalopathy
Auer rods – Acute myelogenous leukemia (especially the promyelocytic type)
Autosplenectomy – Sickle cell anemia
Babinski’s sign – UMN lesion
Baker’s cyst in popliteal fossa – Rheumatoid arthritis
“Bamboo spine” on x-ray – Ankylosing spondylitis
Bartter’s syndrome – Hyperreninemia
Basophilic stippling of RBCs – Lead poisoning
Becker’s muscular dystrophy – Defective dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne’s

/> Bell’s palsy – LMN CN VII palsy
Bence Jones proteins – Multiple myeloma (kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine), Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (IgM)
Berger’s disease – IgA nephropathy
Bernard-Soulier disease – Defect in platelet adhesion
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis – Sarcoidosis
Birbeck granules on EM – Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Bloody tap on LP – Subarachnoid hemorrhage
“Blue bloater” – Chronic bronchitis
Blue-domed cysts – Fibrocystic change of the breast
Blue sclera – Osteogenesis imperfecta
Boot-shaped heart on x-ray – Tetralogy of Fallot; RVH
Bouchard’s nodes – Osteoarthritis (PIP swelling 2° to osteophytes)
Boutonnière deformity – Rheumatoid arthritis
Branching rods in oral infection – Actinomyces israelii
“Brown tumor” of bone – Hemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen’s disease)
Brushfield’s spots – Down syndrome
Bruton’s disease – X-linked agammaglobulinemia
Budd-Chiari syndrome – Posthepatic venous thrombosis
Buerger’s disease – Small/medium-artery vasculitis
Burkitt’s lymphoma – 8:14 translocation; associated with EBV
Burton’s lines – Lead poisoning
C-ANCA, P-ANCA – Wegener’s granulomatosis, polyarteritis nodosa
Café-au-lait spots on skin – Neurofibromatosis
Caisson disease – Gas emboli
Calf pseudohypertrophy – Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy
Call-Exner bodies – Granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy – Chagas’ disease
Cerebriform nuclei – Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Chagas’ disease – Trypanosome infection
Chancre 1° syphilis (not painful)
Chancroid – Haemophilus ducreyi (painful)
Charcot’s triad – Multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech), cholangitis (jaundice, RUQ pain, fever)
Charcot-Leyden crystals – Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)

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