Unit 67. ~ing clauses (feeling tired, i went to bed early.) – grammar in use

A.
A clause is a part of a sentence. Some sentences have two or more clauses:
* Jim hurt his arm (main clause) playing tennis.(~ing clause)
* Feeling tired,(~ing clause) I went to bed early.(main clause)
‘Playing tennis’ and ‘feeling tired’ are ~ing clauses.
If the ~ing clause is first (as in the second example), we write a comma (,) between the clauses.

B.
When two things happen at the same time, you can use ~ing for one of the verbs. The main clause usually comes first:
* I’ve just seen Carol. She’s in the bar having a drink. (= she is in the bar and she is having a drink)
* A man ran out of the house shouting. (= he ran out of the house and he was shouting)
* Do something! Don’t just stand there doing nothing!
We also use ~ing when one action happens during another action. We use ~ing for the longer action. The longer action is the second part of the sentence:
* Jim

hurt his arm playing tennis. (= while he was playing)
* Did you cut yourself shaving? (= while you were shaving)
You can also use ~ing after while or when:
* Jim hurt his arm while playing tennis.
* Be careful when crossing the road. (= when you are crossing)

C.
When one action happens before another action, we use having (done) for the first action:
* Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.
* Having finished her work, she went home.
You can also say after ~ing:
* After finishing her work, she went home.
If one short action follows another short action, you can use the simple ~ing form (doing instead of having done) for the first action:
* Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.
These structures are used more in written English than in spoken English.

D.
You can use an ~ing clause to explain something or to say why somebody does something. The~ing clause usually comes first:
* Feeling tired, I went to bed early. (= because I felt tired)
* Being unemployed, he hasn’t got much money. (= because he is unemployed)
* Not having a car, she finds it difficult to get around. (= because she doesn’t have a car)
* Having already seen the film twice, I didn’t want to go to the cinema. (= because I had already seen it twice)
These structures are used more in written English than in spoken English.



Unit 67. ~ing clauses (feeling tired, i went to bed early.) – grammar in use