The Present Perfect
– The Present Perfect is used to describe an action which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with state verbs such as have, like, know, be, etc. In this case, we often use for and since.
They have been friends for twenty years. (They met each other twenty years ago and they are still friends).
– The Present Perfect is also used for an action which has recently finished and whose result is visible in the present.
She has picked a lot of apples. ( The apples are in the basked, so the action has finished).
– The Present Perfect is used for an action witch happened at an unstated time in the past. The exact time is not important, so it is not mentioned. The emphasis is placed on the action
A) He has broken his arm. (The exact time is not mentioned. What is important is the fact that his arm is broken.)
B)Peter has been to Paris four times. (the exact time of each of his visits is not mentioned. What is important is the fact that he has visited Paris four time.)
– The Present Perfect is also used for an action which has happened within a specific time period, which is not over the moment of speaking, such as today. This morning/afternoon/week/ month/year. etc.
She has received three faxes this morning. (The action has been reputed three time up to now and may happened again because the time period – this morning-is not over yet.)
She received three faxes this morning. ( The time period – this morning – is over. It is afternoon or evening.
– The Present perfect is usually used with the following time expression
Ever, never, just, already, lately, recently and yet
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The present perfect