Psychology as a science studies mental activity and human behavior. Psychologists study basic functions such as learning, memory, language, thinking, emotions and motives. They investigate development throughout the life span from birth to dead. They are involved in mental and physical health care. They treat people who are emotionally distressed.
Psychology occupies a strategic position between natural and social sciences on the one hand, and between sciences and humanities, on the other.
Each of the subjects listed in the four groups has its own relationship with psychology. For example, knowledge of physics and chemistry is necessary to provide a scientific basic for experimental psychology. Psychology is also closely linked to sociology. But whereas sociologists direct their attention to groups, group processes, and social forces, social psychologists focus on group and social influences on individuals. Psychology and biology are also closely connected. Physiological psychologists investigate the role of the brain and nervous system in such functions as memory, language, sleep, attention, movement, perception, hunger, anger and joy. On the other hand, psychologists took much from the theory of knowledge, logic and philosophy of science. Besides, psychology separated from philosophy.
The word “psychology” is derived from the Greek word meaning “study of the mind of soul”. So in the definition of psychology there are three basic words: “science”, “behavior”, “mental processes”.
“Science” means rational investigation of processes and phenomena. By “behavior” psychologists mean everything that people and animals do: actions, emotions, ways of communication, developmental processes. “Mental processes” characterize the work of mind and the nervous system.
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Scope of psychology