For thousands of years people’s mode of life was primitive. In a short period of time a gigantic leap was made by people in science and technology to reach the present state of human development. The world knows the names of many great scientists: chemists, biologists etc. The Russian inventors and scientists made the great contribution to the development of world science. Their names are world-known. It’s almost impossible to name the branch of science in which the Russian inventors haven’t played the greatest role. M. Lomonosov was one of the most learnt men in Europe. He was an outstanding inventor both in humanities and sciences. He founded the first Russian University. The Great Russian scientist D. Mendeleev discovered the Periodic Law of Elements. All future discoveries in the field of chemistry and physics have been based on this law. His discovery made it possible to find 38 new chemical elements to fill the empty spaces left in the Periodic table. Popov invented radio. Pavlov and Sechenov were the world’s greatest physiologists. The greatest event of the 20th century was the flight man into space. Tciolkovski is the father of rocket flying. He worked out the theory of cosmic flights. Mozhaiski’s aeroplane was the 1st in the world. S. Korolev devoted his life to rocket research, constructing artificial satellites. Tciolkovski believed that Mankind would not remain on Earth forever. With Gagarin’s flight his dreams came true. Born in 1921 Sakharov an outstanding scientist and public figure worked on hydrogen bomb and came to conclusion that any atomic and nuclear weapon should be banned. He protested against the invasion in Afghanistan, against any violation of human rights. Abroad he was recognised as a civil rights activist and received the Nobel Prize. At home he was persecuted, deprived of all his titles and orders and exiled to the city of Gorky. Only in 1985 he was allowed to come back to Moscow. He was given back all his titles and was elected a deputy of the Supreme Soviet. He said that our society should develop in a new direction and foresaw the changes that are taking place now.