Ocean’s climate effects

Ocean currents greatly affect the Earth’s climate by transferring heat from the tropics to the polar regions, and transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, where winds may carry them inland. Surface heat and freshwater fluxes create global density gradients that drive the thermohaline circulation part of large-scale ocean circulation. It plays an important role in supplying heat to the polar regions, and thus in sea ice regulation. Changes in the thermohaline circulation are thought to have significant impacts on the Earth’s radiation budget. Insofar as the thermohaline circulation governs the rate at which deep waters reach the surface, it may also significantly influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.
For a discussion of the possibilities of changes to the thermohaline circulation under global warming, see shutdown of thermohaline circulation.
It is often stated that the thermohaline circulation is the primary reason that the climate of Western Europe is so temperate. An alternate hypothesis claims that this is largely incorrect, and that Europe is warm mostly because it lies downwind of an ocean basin, and because atmospheric waves bring warm air north from the subtropics.[17][18]
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area’s climate and connecting currents in several oceans.
One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: tropical cyclones (also called “typhoons” and “hurricanes” depending upon where the system forms).



Ocean’s climate effects