The United Kingdom is situated on the northwest coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean to the northwest and the North Sea to the east. The U. K. includes Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain, the largest island in Europe, contains England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom has an area of 244,000 square kilometres (94,249 square miles).
The capital of the country is London. English is the official language. The population of the U. K. is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs. Four out of every five people live in towns. Over 46 million people live in England. Over 3 million people reside in Wales, a little over 5 million in Scotland, and about 1.5 million in Northern Ireland. London’s population is over 7 million people. The British nation consists of the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. The UK is multicultural, and there are many races, nationalities, and people of colour in the United Kingdom.
The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is not too hot in the summer nor too cold in the winter. It often rains in England. Rain falls during all the four seasons, in spring, summer, autumn and winter. Snow falls only in the north and west of the country.
The surface of England and Ireland is flat, but Scotland and Wales are mountainous. Many parts of the country have beautiful villages. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river is the Thames. Many ships and barges go up and down the river. The longest river is the Severn. It is 350 kilometres long.
There are many universities, colleges libraries, museums and theatres in the country. The most famous universities are Cambridge University, Oxford University, and Glasgow University.
The U. K. is a parliamentary monarchy. The British Parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is the head of the government.
The United Kingdom has some mineral resources. Coal and oil are the most important of them. The United Kingdom is one of the world’s most industrialized countries. The main industrial centres are Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester. The largest cities of the country are London, Birmingham, Cardiff, Manchester, Glasgow, Belfast, and Dublin. Agriculture is an important sector of the country’s economy. The British people grow wheat, fruit, vegetables and oats.