In electricity supply systems, an earthing system defines the electrical potential of the conductors relative to the Earth’s conductive surface. The choice of earthing system can affect the safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the power supply, and regulations can vary considerably among countries.
As described below, most electrical systems connect one supply conductor to earth (or ground). If a fault within an electrical device connects a “hot” (unearthed) supply conductor to an exposed conductive surface, anyone touching it while electrically connected to the earth (e. g., by standing on it, or touching an earthed sink) will complete a circuit back to the earthed supply conductor and receive an electric shock.
A protective earth, known as an equipment grounding conductor in the US National Electrical Code, avoids this hazard by keeping the exposed conductive surfaces of a device at earth potential. To avoid possible voltage drop no current is
allowed to flow in this conductor under normal circumstances, but fault currents will usually trip or blow the fuse or circuit breaker protecting the circuit. A high impedance line-to-ground fault insufficient to trip the overcurrent protection may still trip a residual-current device (ground fault circuit interrupter or GFCI in North America) if one is present.
In contrast, a functional earth connection serves a purpose other than shock protection, and may normally carry current. Examples of devices that use functional earth connections include surge suppressors and electromagnetic interference filters, certain antennas and measurement instruments. But the most important example of a functional earth is the neutral in an electrical supply system. It is a current-carrying conductor connected to earth, often but not always at only one point to avoid earth currents. The NEC calls it a groundED supply conductor to distinguish it from the equipment groundING conductor.
Until the mid 1900s, power outlets generally lacked protective earth terminals. Devices needing an earth connection often used the supply neutral. Some used dedicated ground rods. Many appliances had polarized plugs to maintain a distinction between “live” and “neutral”, but using the supply neutral for equipment earthing was highly problematical. “Live” and “neutral” might be accidentally reversed in the outlet or plug, or the neutral-to-earth connection might fail or be improperly installed. Even normal load currents in the neutral might generate hazardous voltage drops. For these reasons, most countries mandated dedicated protective earth connections that are now almost universal.
International standard IEC 60364 distinguishes three families of earthing arrangements, using the two-letter codes TN, TT, and IT.
The first letter indicates the connection between earth and the power-supply equipment (generator or transformer):
T – Direct connection of a point with earth (Latin: terra);
I – No point is connected with earth (isolation), except perhaps via a high impedance.
The second letter indicates the connection between earth and the electrical device being supplied:
T – Direct connection of a point with earth
N – Direct connection to neutral at the origin of installation, which is connected to the earth
In a TN earthing system, one of the points in the generator or transformer is connected with earth, usually the star point in a three-phase system. The body of the electrical device is connected with earth via this earth connection at the transformer.