Django (web framework)

Django is an open source web application framework, written in Python, which follows the model-view-controller architectural pattern.[2] It was originally developed to manage several news-oriented sites for The World Company[3] of Lawrence, Kansas, and was released publicly under a BSD license in July 2005; the framework was named after gypsy jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt.[4] In June 2008 it was announced that a newly formed Django Software Foundation will take care of Django in the future. [5]

Django’s primary goal is to ease the creation of complex, database-driven websites. Django emphasizes reusability and “pluggability” of components, rapid development, and the principle of DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself). Python is used throughout, even for settings, files, and data models.

Django also provides an optional administrative CRUD (create, read, update and delete) interface that is generated dynamically through introspection and configured via admin models.

The core Django framework consists of an object-relational mapper which mediates between data models (defined as Python classes) and a relational database; a regular-expression-based URL dispatcher; a view system for processing requests; and a templating system.

Also included in the core framework are:

* A lightweight, standalone web server for development and testing.
* A form serialization and validation system which can translate between HTML forms and values suitable for storage in the database.
* A caching framework which can use any of several cache methods.
* Support for middleware classes which can intervene at various stages of request processing and carry out custom functions.
* An internal dispatcher system which allows components of an application to communicate events to each other via pre-defined signals.
* An internationalization system, including translations of Django’s own components

into a variety of languages.
* A serialization system which can produce and read XML and/or JSON representations of Django model instances.
* A system for extending the capabilities of the template engine.
* An interface to Python’s built-in unit test framework.

[edit] Bundled applications

The main Django distribution also bundles a number of applications in its “contrib” package, including:

* An extensible authentication system.
* The dynamic administrative interface.
* Tools for generating RSS and Atom syndication feeds.
* A flexible commenting system.
* A sites framework that allows one Django installation to run multiple websites, each with their own content and applications
* Tools for generating Google Sitemaps.
* Tools for preventing cross-site request forgery.
* Template libraries which enable the use of lightweight markup languages such as Textile and Markdown.
* A framework for creating GIS applications.

[edit] Applications built on Django

* The Pinax framework provides reusable applications aimed at Django-based social networking websites.
* RapidSMS is a framework for SMS applications built on Django.
* Pootle is an online translation management tool.

[edit] Server arrangements

Django can be run in conjunction with Apache using mod_python or mod_wsgi. Django also includes the ability to launch a FastCGI server, enabling use behind any web server which supports FastCGI. It should also be possible to use other WSGI-compliant web servers. Django officially supports four database backends: PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite and Oracle.

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Django (web framework)