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VIDEO ON THE WEB
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Nyone who has visited YouTube. com in the past four years knows that you can embed video in a web page. But prior to HTML5, there was no standards-based way to do this. Virtually all the video you’ve ever watched “on the web” has been funneled through a third-party plugin – maybe QuickTime, maybe RealPlayer, maybe Flash. (YouTube uses Flash.) These plugins integrate with your browser well enough that you may not even be aware that you’re using them. That is, until you try to watch a video on a platform that doesn’t support that plugin.
HTML5 defines a standard way to embed video in a web page, using a element. Support for the element is still evolving, which is a polite way of saying it doesn’t work yet. At least, it doesn’t work everywhere. But don’t despair! There are alternatives and fallbacks and options galore.
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But support for the element itself is really only a small part of the story. Before we can talk about HTML5 video, you first need to understand a little about video itself. (If you know about video already, you can skip ahead to What Works on the Web.)
You may think of video files as “AVI files” or “MP4 files.” In reality, “AVI” and “MP4″ are just container formats. Just like a ZIP file can contain any sort of file within it, video container formats only define how to store things within them, not what kinds of data are stored. (It’s a little more complicated than that, because not all video streams are compatible with all container formats, but never mind that for now.)
A video file usually contains multiple tracks – a video track (without audio), plus one
or more audio tracks (without video). Tracks are usually interrelated. An audio track contains markers within it to help synchronize the audio with the video. Individual tracks can have metadata, such as the aspect ratio of a video track, or the language of an audio track. Containers can also have metadata, such as the title of the video itself, cover art for the video, episode numbers (for television shows), and so on.
There are lots of video container formats. Some of the most popular include
MPEG 4, usually with an. mp4 or. m4v extension. The MPEG 4 container is based on Apple’s older QuickTime container (.mov). Movie trailers on Apple’s website still use the older QuickTime container, but movies that you rent from iTunes are delivered in an MPEG 4 container.
Flash Video, usually with an. flv extension. Flash Video is, unsurprisingly, used by Adobe Flash. Prior to Flash 22.214.171.124 (a. k. a. Flash Player 9 Update 3), this was the only container format that Flash supported. More recent versions of Flash also support the MPEG 4 container.
Ogg, usually with an. ogv extension. Ogg is an open standard, open source-friendly, and unencumbered by any known patents. Firefox 3.5, Chrome 4, and Opera 10.5 support – natively, without platform-specific plugins – the Ogg container format, Ogg video (called “Theora”), and Ogg audio (called “Vorbis”). On the desktop, Ogg is supported out-of-the-box by all major Linux distributions, and you can use it on Mac and Windows by installing the QuickTime components or DirectShow filters, respectively. It is also playable with the excellent VLC on all platforms.
WebM is a new container format.