What is the tolerance? Is it really true pledge of survival of people? Is it capable to regulate relations between people and establish the indispensable world for measured coexistence?
Tolerance is the general aspiration, ability to some establishment and maintenance of a certain generality among the people with different race and cultural signs. There are a lot of conflicts and new contradictions between the people of different cultural identification. It has been arising for many centuries. It has been involving some mass human victims, the destruction of spiritual, cultural and material values. The threat of total extermination of thenations on the basis of mutual negative feelings, intense mutual relations and claims becomes aggravated. How can we stop the national wars and don`t admit an aggravation of new conflict situations? Which way the people can overcome the hostility to each other and come to an understanding? The tolerance, close to the concepts of mercy and indulgence, meaning indulgence and sincere respect for the customs, beliefs and opinions of other people is the key problem of the modern world concerning the major aspects of life of the mankind. For long years the philosophers have been developing different ways of decision of the presented problem. These ways have the only true conclusion – the world and harmony will be reached only with the moral re-education of the population of our planet in the spirit of tolerance. So, the main point of the problem should be found in education of every nation and a person. At present, this question has got global character and universal value for thefuture of the next generations, it has become a difficult international problem and it explains its conclusive urgency.
In spite of some achievements and progress in the field of science and art which considerably raise the general standard of well-being of population, we can see the growth of the aggression, extremism, high percent of criminality
and wide circulation of terrorism in our modern society. The newest scientific projects extensively use in the armed oppositions and in severe violent actions for the sake of embodiment of the egoistical purposes and ideas of certain nation. For example, we can result the usage in 30-40th of the twentieth century the achievements of science by Nazis for a purpose of submission and enslavement of the “lowest” races, not worthy, in their opinion, to be called as people. The disaster reason is covered not only in cultural and social distinction of the countries. The important role in ripening of some world conflicts takes place in the interpersonal relations characterized by intolerance and disgust to the sights and values of other nations.
From generation to generation ethnoses transfer the animosities to the young generation in heritage. As a result, we know some facts about the psychological opposition to traditions, beliefs of other nations. It is no secret, antisocial organizations influence the modern youth too, because young people frequently adopt negative representations about overseas cultures, a society system. It brings up the irreconcilability to coexistence of the separate nations in the future statesmen and kills the humanity of the person. Under the influence of these facts there is a tendency to the interethnic isolation passing later in the national irreconcilability. The state also plays an important role in formation of public representation about the tolerance as it should give particular attention to improvement of ethnic mutual relations and development of culture of international relations. However many modern states for which the compromise is unacceptable, do not follow these principles. According to the data of some historical sources, for the first time the tolerance problem had been arisen in the western civilisation in religious level. The bright trace was left by the crusades in the history. They have the main idea to reference other people in their own belief. As it is known, German knights had ruthlessness and negation of another`s traditions, intolerance to other religions.
How can we reach the respect and understanding in society and what it is? In my opinion, one of the most important condition of tolerance is the comprehension of moral and an ethical duty by the separate person and ethnos in the whole. It is necessary to notice that without formation of mass representation about the tolerance and peaceful co-existence movement and civilised society the development at the present stage is impossible. Its importance for all nations of the world is very great, so we can read it in some international certificates – the Declaration of Principles of Tolerance, accepted in UNESCO, and the plan of measures accepted later by Russia of distribution the main principles of tolerance.
Considering the question of education of merciful and beneficial qualities in consciousness of each person, I would like to pay attention to the possible ways of decision. I believe that development of tolerance in social groups should be carried out by means of various educational institutions, in particular the schools education of pupils in the spirit of the world, democracy and human rights should become which overall objective. The school is one of the basic institutes of education of the patience, the integral quality of moral aspect. It can prevent the occurrence of some nationalist and racist moods, simultaneously developing in people the ability for deep understanding of life, active perception of the validity and the feelingof relative positioning, responsibility, independence. The sciences studying the society, its features and valuable reference points should receive a wide circulation. Every person is obliged to recognise the right of other person to utter the opinion and a position, to express own sights. He must concern his culture and national identity faithfully.
In the history of Russia the tolerance problem was in the sphere of influence of the state and Orthodox Church, it meant, first of all, as tolerance in relation to other culture. Patience to other people always remained the main feature of Russian people nation and it was so until the friendly ethnos did not break its freedom somehow. This tendency was reflected in socially-legal concepts of Russian philosophers, such as by P. I. Novgorodtsev, V. S. Solovev and N. O. Lossky. At this very moment in the conditions of the world economic crisis and in the course of decision of some essential problems mentioning the important spheres of ability to live of the person, it is necessary to remember that maintenance of steady harmony between ethnic groups, readiness for productive work and cooperation with the people of different by racial and cultural signs – a key to long-awaited mutual understanding and the most effective way of peace permission of disagreements and disputes as I think. The political freedom assumes trust to political opponents, while economic – the tolerance to competing economic interests. From my point of view, any nation, any country which is in peace diplomatic relations with another country, will never lose its own traditions and a cultural heritage. On the contrary, an interaction of ethnoses assumes general cultural enrichment, more successful and purposeful development, the favorable permission of questions as economic, and less actual for today the problems of ecology and public health services.
The words of the French philosopher Claude Adrian Gelvetsy aretrue: “If education is more perfect, people are happier”. It is obvious if person is restrained and polite, there will be more diplomatically and well-rounded society.
The possible alternative which I see in the future in the following of tolerance principles – the joint and purposeful help developed and developing countries lagging behind, not developed. The given action, in my opinion, will allow to reach the greatest unity and help to survive to the people which are exposed to constant d
isasters, hunger, epidemics and other hardship. Between some countries and people as a whole promptly develop diplomatic and the friendship directed on cooperation in the spheres of economy, formation and culture. Foe example the relations between Russia and China, which are successfully developed throughout several years, and also the relation of Russia and the separate countries of the West in science and education sphere.
It means, the crisis in mutual relations among states and ethnoses should be overcome without any violent actions and in the antihuman ways, but educating tolerance in the future generations as pledge of survival of mankind, as ability to find the compromise for the sake of protection of a world order, all-round general development and the peace for the mankind perishing in the wars and confrontations. Tolerance is a sign of a self-trust and confidence in own possibilities. We must remember that in our forces to keep peace in the world.
In conclusion, I want to notice, we must realise the tolerance, first of all, as the major value of a society opening for ethnoses, the road to perception of other cultures, capable to appreciate freedom and respect human advantages, abilities and individuality.